Jews in Romny, Ukraine

https://bit.ly/3neMMBH— online burials catalog.

Romny is the center of the eponymous district in the Sumy region of Ukraine. It is mentioned in sources since the XI century. Documentary evidence of the existence of the community in Romny dates back to the beginning of the 19th century.

At the end of the 18th century, the Cossack Colonel Andrei Markovich, who owned the Romny, organized the Ilyinsky Fair in the city. It attracted the first Jewish population. In 1803, 126 bourgeois Jews and one Jewish merchant lived in the city.

According to the data of 1866, 1.8 thousand Jews lived in the city, who accounted for 34.7% of the local population. The growth of the permanent Jewish population was facilitated by the construction of the Libau-Romny railway.

Jews owned enterprises of local industry and trade. They owned a steam mill, tobacco factories and tobacco shops, alcohol and soap factories, shops selling bread, groceries, firewood and kerosene, books, haberdashery and jewelry. If in 1835 one Jewish merchant lived in the city, then by 1860 their number increased to 93 people.

In 1848, a Jewish state school appeared in the city. From 1859 to 1889, the number of synagogues in the city increased from one to nine.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Romny had a Talmud Torah, two male and three female Jewish secondary schools, two female vocational schools, a Jewish savings and loan society and a society for helping poor Jews.

In 1910, the Jewish population of the city was 13 thousand people, or 43% of the townspeople. Before the start of World War I, Jews owned two pharmacies and six pharmacy warehouses, two bakeries, four hotels and four inns, the only laundry and cinema in Romny, two photo and two watch workshops, as well as more than 50 shops and stores.

The community suffered from pogroms in 1881, 1905 and 1919.

In the 1920s — 1930s, the Jewish population declined due to emigration, repression and participation in Soviet programs to attract Jews to agricultural work. If in 1923 9.7 thousand Jews lived in Romny, who constituted 33% of the population, then by 1939 their number dropped to 3.8 thousand, and the share in the population fell to 14.8%.

By the beginning of the German occupation in September 1941, 30% of the Jews remained in the city. The rest managed to evacuate. At the end of October 1941, the Nazis created a ghetto in the city, and in November 1941, they carried out an extermination aktion.

In the post-war years until the 1950s, a Jewish community was registered in the city and a synagogue operated. In 1959, no more than 1,000 Jews lived in the city. According to the 2001 census, 41 Jews lived in Romny.

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